cbd meaning medical in hindi

December 15, 2021 By admin Off

We would like to thank Prof Carlo Colosimo (Università La Sapienza, Rome, Italy) for his help in reviewing this infomation.

CBD occurs when cells in specific parts of the brain – the cortex and basal ganglia – are damaged as a protein called tau builds up and over time causes harmful clumps. In normal brains, tau is broken down to avoid a build-up, but in CBD this does not happen.

Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms experienced and the exclusion of other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as Parkinson’s or stroke. Unfortunately, as with Parkinson’s, there is no single test or scan to diagnose CBD.

Content last reviewed: March 2020.

Speech and communication problems : slow and slurred speech.

Acknowledgement.

There is currently no cure or treatment to stop CBD’s progression but medication and various therapies can relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Cognitive and behavioural changes : thinking may become impaired, leading to memory problems and difficulty understanding and interpreting communication. It may also be difficult to carry out complex tasks that require planning ahead.

Changes in personality, such as apathy, irritability, and decreased interest in things previously enjoyed may be noticed by family and friends.

CBD has similarities with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). Some people with CBD go on to develop PSP, and vice versa.

A diagnosis should be made by a specialist with experience in CBD, usually a neurologist. He or she may ask for a brain scan to rule out other causes, and they may also carry out tests to check memory, concentration, and understanding of verbal communication.

CBD is a very individual condition and the symptoms each person experiences vary. As CBD is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, symptoms gradually become worse over time.

Movement difficulties.

Swallowing difficulties : eating, drinking, and swallowing become progressively more difficult and food may ‘go down the wrong way’. This can lead to chest infections or pneumonia.

It is thought there may be some weak genetic link too but the risk of other family members developing CBD is very low.

Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD) is a rare type of parkinsonism that affects people from the age of 40, typically between the ages of 50 to 70. It tends to affect one side of the body more than the other initially, gradually spreading over a few years.

Causes.

The most common symptoms are outlined below, but many people have only a few symptoms.

More information and support is available from the Frontotemporal Dementia Support Group – FTDSG, The Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration – AFTD, and the Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) Association – PSP Europe.

Treatment.

Accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream and subsequent deposition in the skin causes jaundice (icterus). Conjunctival icterus is generally a more sensitive sign of hyperbilirubinemia than generalized jaundice. Total serum bilirubin values are normally 0.2-1.2 mg/dL. Jaundice may not be clinically recognizable until levels are at least 3 mg/dL. [2] Urine bilirubin is normally absent. When it is present, only conjugated bilirubin is passed into the urine as it is water soluble. This may be evidenced by dark-colored urine seen in patients with obstructive jaundice or jaundice due to hepatocellular injury. However, reagent strips are very sensitive to bilirubin, detecting as little as 0.05 mg/dL. Thus, urine bilirubin may be found before serum bilirubin reaches levels high enough to cause clinical jaundice.

Intrahepatic cholestasis generally occurs at the level of the hepatocyte or biliary canalicular membrane. Causes include hepatocellular disease (eg, viral hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis), drug-induced cholestasis, biliary cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease. In hepatocellular disease, interference in the three major steps of bilirubin metabolism, ie, uptake, conjugation, and excretion, usually occurs. Excretion is the rate-limiting step and is usually impaired to the greatest extent. As a result, conjugated bilirubin predominates in the serum.

The clinical setting of cholestasis or failure of biliary flow may be due to biliary obstruction by mechanical means or by metabolic factors in the hepatic cells. For the sake of simplicity, the primary focus of this article is mechanical causes of biliary obstruction, further separating them into intrahepatic and extrahepatic causes. The discussion of intracellular/metabolic causes of cholestasis is very complex, the pathogenesis of which is not always clearly defined. Therefore, these causes are mentioned but are not discussed in detail.

Extrahepatic obstruction to the flow of bile may occur within the ducts or secondary to external compression. Overall, gallstones are the most common cause of biliary obstruction. Other causes of blockage within the ducts include malignancy, infection, and biliary cirrhosis. External compression of the ducts may occur secondary to inflammation (eg, pancreatitis) and malignancy. Regardless of the cause, the physical obstruction causes a predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

To better understand these disorders, a brief discussion of the normal structure and function of the biliary tree is needed. Bile is the exocrine secretion of the liver and is produced continuously by hepatocytes. It contains cholesterol and waste products, such as bilirubin and bile salts, which aid in the digestion of fats. Half the bile produced runs directly from the liver into the duodenum via a system of ducts, ultimately draining into the common bile duct (CBD). The remaining 50% is stored in the gallbladder. In response to a meal, this bile is released from the gallbladder via the cystic duct, which joins the hepatic ducts from the liver to form the CBD. The CBD runs in the hepatodudoenal ligament and then courses through the head of the pancreas for approximately 2 cm; it joins the terminal part of the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater before passing through the papilla of Vater into the duodenum. [1]

Pathophysiology.

Biliary obstruction refers to the blockage of any duct that carries bile from the liver to the gallbladder or from the gallbladder to the small intestine. This can occur at various levels within the biliary system. The major signs and symptoms of biliary obstruction result directly from the accumulation of bilirubin and bile salts in the blood and the failure of bile to reach its proper destination.

For patient education resources, see the Digestive Disorders Center and Cholesterol Center, as well as Gallstones and Cirrhosis.

Disorders of the biliary tract affect a significant portion of the worldwide population, and the overwhelming majority of cases are attributable to cholelithiasis (gallstones). In the United States, 20% of persons older than 65 years have gallstones and 1 million newly diagnosed cases of gallstones are reported each year.

The lack of bilirubin in the intestinal tract is responsible for the pale stools typically associated with biliary obstruction. The cause of itching (pruritus) associated with biliary obstruction is not clear. Some believe it may be related to the accumulation of bile acids/bile salts in the skin. Others suggest it may be related to the release of endogenous opioids.