cbd olie en diabetes type 2December 15, 2021
CBD oil is believed to activate a number of receptors in the body, influencing the body to produce naturally-occurring cannabinoids.
CBD oil can be used in a number of ways. Most often, instructions will recommend putting a few drops under the tongue 2-3 times a day. Alternatively, some CBD oils can be mixed into different foods or drinks, taken from a pipette or used as a thick paste to be massaged into the skin.
CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant. It is then diluted with a carrier oil such as coconut or hemp seed. The concentration and uses of CBD oils can vary.
GW Pharmaceuticals, a UK-based company, has developed a cannabis spray called Sativex which utilises both CBD and THCV to help treat muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis. The company is in the process of developing a similar spray which could aid blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes.
By activating receptors such as adenosine, serotonin and vanilloid, CBD can affect your body temperature, inflammation and perception of pain.
How does CBD oil work?
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is derived from the CBD compound which is found in cannabis, and has been associated with having a number of potential therapeutic uses, including for diabetes.
Additionally, CBD may interact with existing medication. It is therefore important to discuss using CBD oil with your doctor beforehand, to help ensure it is used safely and any harmful effects are avoided.
Cannabis pills containing only CBD and not THC were sold legally for the first time in Europe in 2015.
Cannabis oil is legal to buy and consume in the UK, with CBD oil first stocked in UK shops in 2018.
Growing research is demonstrating how CBD oil can provide pain relief for people with certain health complications, without the addition of any mind-altering effects.
Unlike the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substance which gives marijuana users the “high” feeling, CBD oil contains less than 0.2% THC. Because CBD is not psychoactive, it does not change a user’s state of mind, but it does appear to produce significant changes in the body.
A 2015 study of CBD oil effects in humans concluded that CBD is generally well-tolerated and considered safe. However, it can cause certain adverse reactions such as diarrhea and stomach ache. 
The human body has two receptors for cannabinoids: CB1 and CB2. Most CB1 receptors are found in the brain, which deal with coordination, movement and appetite. CB2 receptors are more commonly found in the immune system and affect pain and inflammation.
Meanwhile, in 2016, University of Nottingham researchers showed that CBD in combination with another cannabis compound called tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), helped lower blood sugar levels and increase insulin production in people with type 2 diabetes. 
How to use CBD oil.
Studies have also shown that CBD oil has benefits for people with epilepsy, mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression, and helping people quit smoking. 
The benefits of CBD for treating diabetes-related health problems may include reduced inflammation and improved blood glucose control.
People who use Low Carb Program have achieved weight loss, improved HbA1c, reduced medications and type 2 diabetes remission.
What is CBD oil?
The review analyzed 14 published studies. Nine of the studies looked at the effects on animals, and five studies looked at the effects on humans.
If you're thinking of using CBD oil to treat a health condition, talk to your healthcare provider to make sure it's an appropriate option for you.
Don’t take CBD oil if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises pregnant women to avoid marijuana because of the potential risks to a baby’s development. Although the effects of CBD itself are unclear, CBD does pass through the placenta.
High Blood Pressure.
The rats that got CBD experienced less inflammation and nerve pain (pain caused by damage to your nerves).
A 2015 review of studies in the journal Neurotherapeutics suggests that CBD might help treat anxiety disorders.
Meredith Bull, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor with a private practice in Los Angeles, California.
CBD oil might help people with substance use disorder, per a 2015 review in the journal Substance Abuse.
For the study, 57 men took either CBD oil or a placebo (sugar pill) before a public-speaking event. The researchers based anxiety levels on measures like blood pressure and heart rate. They also used a fairly reliable test for mood states called the Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS).
CBD oil is an extract of Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , the same plants used to make marijuana.
It would be hard to overdose on CBD oil because human tolerance is very high. One study reported the toxic dose would be about 20,000 mg taken at one time.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is an enzyme in your body that breaks down certain drugs. But CBD oil can block CYP450 from working the way it normally does. CBD oil can either make some drugs you take have a stronger effect than you need or make them less effective.
CBD oil comes in different forms. Isolates contain only CBD, but full-spectrum oils have several compounds from the cannabis plant. This includes proteins, flavonoids, terpenes, and chlorophyll.
Unlike the THC that's in marijuana, CBD oil doesn't get you high. It contains a chemical called cannabidiol that might help relieve stress, anxiety, drug withdrawals, and nerve pain.
However, at higher doses, too much activity at the receptor site can lead to the opposite effect. This would take away the helpful effects of CBD.
Unlike THC, CBD doesn’t have a strong connection with cannabinoid receptors in the brain. These are the molecules that THC binds to create psychoactive effects.
Dosage and Preparation.
However, there’s no evidence CBD oil can treat high blood pressure on its own or prevent it in people at risk. While stress can complicate high blood pressure, it can’t cause it.
CBD oil may reduce the risk of heart disease by relieving high blood pressure in some people, per a 2017 study in JCI Insight.
This article goes over what CBD is used for, possible side effects, and what you should look for if you choose to buy CBD.
Many of these interactions are mild and don't demand a change to treatment. Others may require you to substitute the drugs you are taking or to separate doses by several hours.
Common side effects include:
In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a CBD oral solution.
Eleven healthy volunteers were treated with 300 mg (seven patients) and 600 mg (four patients) oral CBD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Growth hormone and prolactin levels were unchanged. In contrast, the normal decrease of cortisol levels in the morning (basal measurement=11.0±3.7 μg/dl; 120 min after placebo=7.1±3.9 μg/dl) was inhibited by CBD treatment (basal measurement=10.5±4.9 μg/dl; 120 min after 300 mg CBD=9.9±6.2 μg/dl; 120 min after 600 mg CBD=11.6±11.6 μg/dl). 60.
There only seems to exist one study that could not show an adverse CBD effect on embryogenesis. An in vitro study could show that the development of two-cell embryos was not arrested at CBD concentrations of 6.4, 32, and 160 nM. 35.
EIHA paid nova-Institute for the review. F.G. is Executive Director of IACM.
There were no significant differences between the effects of CBD and placebo on positive and negative psychotic symptoms, general psychopathology (PANSS), anxiety (STAI-S), dysphoria (ARCI), sedation (VAMS, ARCI), and the level of subjective intoxication (ASI, ARCI), where Δ9-THC did have a pronounced effect. The physiological parameters, heart rate and blood pressure, were also monitored and no significant difference between the placebo and the CBD group was observed. 55.
These proteins are also expressed at the blood–brain barrier, where they can pump out drugs such as risperidone. This is hypothesized to be a cause of treatment resistance. 16 In addition, polymorphisms in these genes, making transport more efficient, have been implied in interindividual differences in pharmacoresistance. 10 Moreover, the CBD metabolite 7-COOH CBD might be a potent anticonvulsant itself. 14 It will be interesting to see whether it is a P-gp substrate and alters pharmacokinetics of coadministered P-gp-substrate drugs.
Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects.
Hexobarbital is a CYP2C19 substrate, which is an enzyme that can be inhibited by CBD and can consequently increase hexobarbital availability in the organism. 12,13 Studies also propose that this effect might be caused in vivo by one of CBD metabolites. 14,15 Generally, the metabolite 6a-OH-CBD was already demonstrated to be an inducer of CYP2B10. Recorcinol was also found to be involved in CYP450 induction. The enzymes CYP3A and CYP2B10 were induced after prolonged CBD administration in mice livers, as well as for human CYP1A1 in vitro . 14,15 On the contrary, CBD induces CYP1A1, which is responsible for degradation of cancerogenic substances such as benzopyrene. CYP1A1 can be found in the intestine and CBD-induced higher activity could therefore prevent absorption of cancerogenic substances into the bloodstream and thereby help to protect DNA. 2.
In addition, it is possible that CBD targets differ between humans and animals. Therefore, the same blood concentration might still lead to different effects. Even if the targets, to which CBD binds, are the same in both studied animals and humans, for example, the affinity or duration of CBD binding to its targets might differ and consequently alter its effects.
CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis. 1 For instance, it was recently shown that CBD inhibits Id-1. Helix-loop-helix Id proteins play a role in embryogenesis and normal development via regulation of cell differentiation. High Id1-levels were also found in breast, prostate, brain, and head and neck tumor cells, which were highly aggressive. In contrast, Id1 expression was low in noninvasive tumor cells. Id1 seems to influence the tumor cell phenotype by regulation of invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. 34.
A pilot study with 24 subjects was conducted in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to evaluate the impact of the ad hoc use of CBD in smokers, who wished to stop smoking. Pre- and post-testing for mood and craving of the participants was executed. These tests included the Behaviour Impulsivity Scale, BDI, STAI, and the Severity of Dependence Scale. During the week of CBD inhalator use, subjects used a diary to log their craving (on a scale from 1 to 100=VAS measuring momentary subjective craving), the cigarettes smoked, and the number of times they used the inhaler. Craving was assessed using the Tiffany Craving Questionnaire (11). On day 1 and 7, exhaled CO was measured to test smoking status. Sedation, depression, and anxiety were evaluated with the MRS.
Epileptic patients were treated for 135 days with 200–300 mg oral CBD daily and evaluated every week for changes in urine and blood. Moreover, neurological and physiological examinations were performed, which neither showed signs of CBD toxicity nor severe side effects. The study also illustrated that CBD was well tolerated. 65.
Another publication studied the difference of acute and chronic administration of two doses of CBD in nonstressed mice on anxiety. Already an acute i.p. administration of 3 mg/kg was anxiolytic to a degree comparable to 20 mg/kg imipramine (an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] commonly prescribed for anxiety and depression). Fifteen days of repeated i.p. administration of 3 mg/kg CBD also increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis (using three different markers) in the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Interestingly, the repeated administration of 30 mg/kg also led to anxiolytic effects. However, the higher dose caused a decrease in neurogenesis and cell proliferation, indicating dissociation of behavioral and proliferative effects of chronic CBD treatment. The study does not mention adverse effects. 19.
Schiavon et al. cite three studies that used chronic CBD administration to demonstrate its anxiolytic effects in chronically stressed rats, which were mostly mediated via hippocampal neurogenesis. 19 and references therein For instance, animals received daily i.p. injections of 5 mg/kg CBD. Applying a 5HT1A receptor antagonist in the DPAG (dorsal periaqueductal gray area), it was implied that CBD exerts its antipanic effects via these serotonin receptors. No adverse effects were reported in this study.
A Dutch study compared subjective adverse effects of three different strains of medicinal cannabis, distributed via pharmacies, using VAS. “Visual analog scale is one of the most frequently used psychometric instruments to measure the extent and nature of subjective effects and adverse effects. The 12 adjectives used for this study were as follows: alertness, tranquility, confidence, dejection, dizziness, confusion/disorientation, fatigue, anxiety, irritability, appetite, creative stimulation, and sociability.” The high CBD strain contained the following concentrations: 6% Δ9-THC/7.5% CBD ( n =25). This strain showed significantly lower levels of anxiety and dejection. Moreover, appetite increased less in the high CBD strain. The biggest observed adverse effect was “fatigue” with a score of 7 (out of 10), which did not differ between the three strains. 52.
The antibiotic rifampicin induces CYP3A4, leading to reduced CBD peak plasma concentrations. 14 In contrast, the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole, an antifungal drug, almost doubles CBD peak plasma concentration. Interestingly, the CYP2C19 inhibitor omeprazole, used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, could not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of CBD. 14.
A study, where a regimen of 6×100 mg CBD daily was coadministered with hexobarbital in 10 subjects, found that CBD increased the bioavailability and elimination half-time of the latter. Unfortunately, it was not mentioned whether this effect was mediated via the cytochrome P450 complex. 16.
The ex vivo study used the antidiabetic drug and BCRP substrate glyburide. 17 After 2 h of CBD perfusion, the largest difference between the CBD and the placebo placentas ( n =8 each) was observed. CBD inhibition of the BCRP efflux function in the placental cotyledon warrants further research of coadministration of CBD with known BCRP substrates such as nitrofurantoin, cimetidine, and sulfasalazine. In this study, a dose–response curve should be established in male and female subjects (CBD absorption was shown to be higher in women) because the concentrations used here are usually not reached by oral or inhaled CBD administration. Nonetheless, CBD could accumulate in organs physiologically restricted via a blood barrier. 17.
Bergamaschi et al. list an impressive number of acute and chronic studies in humans, showing CBD safety for a wide array of side effects. 1 They also conclude from their survey, that none of the studies reported tolerance to CBD. Already in the 1970s, it was shown that oral CBD (15–160 mg), iv injection (5–30 mg), and inhalation of 0.15 mg/kg b.w. CBD did not lead to adverse effects. In addition, psychomotor function and psychological functions were not disturbed. Treatment with up to 600 mg CBD neither influenced physiological parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) nor performance on a verbal paired-associate learning test. 1.
Also, CBD can be a substrate of UDP glucuronosyltransferase. 14 Whether this enzyme is indeed involved in the glucuronidation of CBD and also causes clinically relevant drug interactions in humans is yet to be determined in clinical studies. Generally, more human studies, which monitor CBD-drug interactions, are needed.
In nonobese diabetes-prone female mice (NOD), CBD was administered i.p. for 4 weeks (5 days a week) at a dose of 5 mg/kg per day. After CBD treatment was stopped, observation continued until the mice were 24 weeks old. CBD treatment lead to considerable reduction of diabetes development (32% developed glucosuria in the CBD group compared to 100% in untreated controls) and to more intact islet of Langerhans cells. CBD increased IL-10 levels, which is thought to act as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in this context. The IL-12 production of splenocytes was reduced in the CBD group and no side effects were recorded. 32.
Physiological measures and symptomatic effects were assessed before, and at 1, 2, and 3 h postdrug administration using PANSS (a 30-item rating instrument used to assess psychotic symptoms, with ratings based on a semistructured clinical interview yielding subscores for positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains), the self-administered VAMS with 16 items (e.g., mental sedation or intellectual impairment, physical sedation or bodily impairments, anxiety effects and other types of feelings or attitudes), the ARCI (Addiction Research Center Inventory; containing empirically derived drug-induced euphoria; stimulant-like effects; intellectual efficiency and energy; sedation; dysphoria; and somatic effects) to assess drug effects and the STAI-T/S, where subjects were evaluated on their current mood and their feelings in general.
A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in 1973 by Mincis et al. administering 10 mg oral CBD for 21 days did not find any neurological and clinical changes (EEG; EKG). 64 The same holds true for psychiatry and blood and urine examinations. A similar testing battery was performed in 1980, at weekly intervals for 30 days with daily oral CBD administration of 3 mg/kg b.w., which had the same result. 65.
The positive effects of CBD on hyperglycemia seem to be mainly mediated via CBD anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. For instance, in ob/ob mice (an animal model of obesity), 4-week treatment with 3 mg/kg (route of administration was not mentioned) increased the HDL-C concentration by 55% and reduced total cholesterol levels by more than 25%. In addition, treatment increased adiponectin and liver glycogen concentrations. 44 and references therein.
CBD can also reduce heroin-seeking behaviors (e.g., induced by a conditioned cue). This was shown in the preclinical data mentioned earlier and was also replicated in a small double-blind pilot study with individuals addicted to opioids, who have been abstinent for 7 days. 52,53 They either received placebo or 400 or 800 mg oral CBD on three consecutive days. Craving was induced with a cue-induced reinstatement paradigm (1 h after CBD administration). One hour after the video session, subjective craving was already reduced after a single CBD administration. The effect persisted for 7 days after the last CBD treatment. Interestingly, anxiety measures were also reduced after treatment, whereas no adverse effects were described. 23,58.
Moreover, pretreatment with CBD and subsequent Δ9-THC administration could reduce the latter’s psychotic and anxiety symptoms, as measured using a standardized scale. This effect was caused by opposite neural activation of relevant brain areas. In addition, no effects on peripheral cardiovascular measures such as heart rate and blood pressure were measured. 54.
Numerous studies show the CBD immunomodulatory role in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes. These animal and human ex vivo studies have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, but studies with pure CBD are still lacking. Often combinations of THC and CBD were used. It would be especially interesting to study when CBD is proinflammatory and under which circumstances it is anti-inflammatory and whether this leads to side effects (Burstein, 2015: Table 1 shows a summary of its anti-inflammatory actions; McAllister et al. give an extensive overview in Table 1 of the interplay between CBD anticancer effects and inflammation signaling). 29,30.
Nonetheless, some side effects have been reported for CBD, but mainly in vitro or in animal studies. They include alterations of cell viability, reduced fertilization capacity, and inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism and drug transporters (e.g., p-glycoprotein). 1 Consequently, more human studies have to be conducted to see if these effects also occur in humans. In these studies, a large enough number of subjects have to be enrolled to analyze long-term safety aspects and CBD possible interactions with other substances.
Studies in mice have shown that CBD inactivates cytochrome P450 isozymes in the short term, but can induce them after repeated administration. This is similar to their induction by phenobarbital, thereby implying the 2b subfamily of isozymes. 1 Another study showed this effect to be mediated by upregulation of mRNA for CYP3A, 2C, and 2B10, after repeated CBD administration. 1.
At lower doses, it has physiological effects that promote and maintain health, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection effects. For instance, CBD is more effective than vitamin C and E as a neuroprotective antioxidant and can ameliorate skin conditions such as acne. 3,4.
CBD can inhibit CYP2D6, which is also targeted by omeprazole and risperidone. 2,14 There are also indications that CBD inhibits the hepatic enzyme CYP2C9, reducing the metabolization of warfarin and diclofenac. 2,14 More clinical studies are needed, to check whether this interaction warrants an adaption of the used doses of the coadministered drugs.
In addition, the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide (both lipid mediators) were also elevated in the CBD group. CBD showed less serum prolactin increase (predictor of galactorrhoea and sexual dysfunction), fewer extrapyramidal symptoms measured with the Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale, and less weight gain. Moreover, electrocardiograms as well as routine blood parameters were other parameters whose effects were measured but not reported in the study. CBD better safety profile might improve acute compliance and long-term treatment adherence. 67,68.