cbd size ultrasoundDecember 15, 2021
Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation.
We studied a total of 200 subjects; wherein an equal proportion belonged to either sex. The study subjects belonged to the age group 18-85 years of age; the mean age was 34.5 years (SD 13.24 years). A majority of the participants belonged to the age group 18-25 years. The mean age for males was 35.8 years while that for females was 33.1 years. This difference in ages was not statistically significant.
Ultrasonographic measurement of CBD at three locations.
The size of the common bile duct is a predictor of biliary obstruction and it’s measurement is therefore an important component in the evaluation of the biliary system. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct would help to distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice.
However, some authors like Reinus et al.,  have reported no relation of common bile duct diameter with age.
1 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine & Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, India.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India.
We did not find any statistically significant correlation of common bile duct diameter with sex. This finding was similar to other studies by Niederau et al., , Admassie , Reinus et al., , Adibi and Givechian , Brogna et al.,  and El Sharkawy E et al., .
Results : Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did not show any statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric measurements.
Materials and Methods.
Ultrasonography is an accurate, safe, non-invasive and inexpensive imaging modality, which is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of many biliary tree diseases . Ultrasonography is comparable in accuracy to oral cholecystography, radionuclide studies, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and more cost-effective .
Further, we applied a test for linear trend on the age-wise distribution of common bile duct diameter. This was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.003), with an F-statistic of 8.78.
Height was measured using a stadiometer with a sensitivity of 0.1 centimeter. The weighing scale with a sensitivity of 0.1 kg was used to measure weight. Chest circumference was measured using a measuring tape over light clothing and while breathing normally. In the males, the measurement was made at the widest point of the chest; in the females, the measurement was made at the level of the nipples with the measuring tape held horizontally. The circumference at the transpyloric plane was measured at a level midway between the suprasternal notch (at the upper border of manubrium between the sternal heads of sternomastoid muscles) and the symphysis pubis (at the lower end of median line). Circumference at the umbilicus was obtained by measuring the abdominal circumference using measuring tape at the level of the umbilicus. Circumference at the hip was measured with the measuring tape positioned around the maximum circumference of the buttocks.
The mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm). The overall mean for all measures was 4.1 mm, with a standard deviation of 1.01 mm. All the three diameters were highly correlated and statistically significant (p-value<0.001). While the lower limit of common bile duct diameter among the normal subjects was 2.0 mm, the upper limit was found to be 7.9 mm. However, 95% of the study participants showed a common bile duct diameter of < 6 mm.
Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures.
The mean common bile duct diameters of proximal and distal parts were 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm) and 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm), respectively. A strong correlation was found between proximal and distal part of CBD due to constant diameter. Similar correlation has been reported by Adibi and Givechian  and Niederau et al., .
In a study conducted in Jordan, Daradkeh et al.,  demonstrated a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI). A correlation of common bile duct diameter with BMI was also reported by Adibi and Givechian . However, no such correlation was reported in a study by Brogna et al., .
The mean diameter of common bile duct was observed to be 4.1 mm (SD 0.95 mm) for males and 4.0 mm (SD 1.07 mm) for females. This difference was tested by applying independent samples t -test. The t value was 0.86, which was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.38).
In order to assess the association between common bile duct diameter and anthropometric measurements, both of which were continuous variables, correlation was used.
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