invasive pine tree cbd

December 15, 2021 By admin Off

Grön’s making a breakthrough with a new line of chocolate bars that are infused with natural CBD derived from the bark of an invasive pine tree. Like Vitamin C, CBD comes from many natural sources, and this is one of the first products on the market to isolate the CBD molecule without cannabis or hemp.

The only thing you taste in their bars is the chocolate itself. No funk, no aftertaste; just some of the most delicious chocolate you will ever eat with the bonus of 100 milligrams of pure CBD.

Grön is one of Oregon’s largest and most forward-thinking cannabis confectioners, and their new CBD line is no exception. All of their products are hand-crafted, fair trade and locally sourced. They are always mindful of the environmental, social and economic impact of their ingredients. It’s not enough for Grön to make great chocolate; they insist on taking care of the purveyors who help make it all possible.

The commercial forest plantations cover an area of 118 000 ha, of which 68 percent is planted with pines. Among the pines, Pinus patula constitutes 61 percent; P. taeda, 22.8 percent, P. elliottii, 10 percent; P. kesiya, 2 percent; and P. oocarpa, 0.2 percent. The remaining 32 percent is under hardwood, namely Eucalyptus grandis, E. cloeziana and Acacia mearnsii . Acacia mearnsii occupies an area of 11 400 ha, which is 30.2 percent of the area planted with hardwoods. All the species used in commercial forestry are exotics as the country’s only softwood conifer, Widdringtonia nodiflora, which occurs in small quantities, was found to be slow growing. Besides species introduction for commercial forestry, there were also significant introduction of species for other purposes such as fruit, amenities, ornamental, windbreaks, shade, fodder and agroforestry. There were also accidental introductions in which some tree species were introduced without defined purpose. Some of these introduced species naturalized in their new environment, and some are invading new areas.

1. Increases the biomass 2. Increases litter fall 3. Changes nutrient chemistry in lowland fynbos. 4. Changes seed dispersal dynamics 5. Increases the biomass 6. Changes size and distribution of fuel 7. Decreases moisture content resulting in change in fire regime 8. Attrition of seed banks of native plants in dense stands over time.

1. Out-competes native trees 2. Dense stands limit options for fire management 3. Decreases stream flow.

Zimbabwe is still fairly wooded, with 66 percent of the country’s land area being under some form of woodland cover (Nyoka and Musokonyi, 2002). Only 27 percent is under cultivation, with the remainder being under other forms, such as grasslands, exotic plantations and settlements. The country has two major phyto-regions namely Flora Zambesiaca and the afromontane. The Flora Zambesiaca comprises five major woodland types, namely Miombo, Mopane, Teak, Acacia and Terminalia-Combretum. These woodlands are believed to contain up to 8 500 species, with 4 600 being endemic. The major genera constituting the endemic species include Bolusanthus , Cleistochlamys , Colophospermum , Diplorhynchus , Pseudolachnostylis and Viridivia . The afromontane phyto-region is scattered along the eastern highlands, which forms the country’s eastern border with Mozambique. Most of the exotic plantations of pines, gums and wattle are in the eastern highlands. The woodlands provide commercial timber, mainly for furniture, local construction poles, fuelwood, fruits, livestock browse and fodder, medicines and shelter for other fauna and flora.

Forest Savannah Fynbos.

3.2.1 Background.

Legislation already exists within South Africa which requires an Environmental Impact Assessment for listed activities (National Environmental Management Act), and the introduction of new species is classed as a listed activity.

There are proposals to legislate the screening of new species for their potential invasiveness before introduction (Van Wilgen et al ., 2000). Without a protocol for screening potential invasive species before their introduction, the problem becomes a vicious cycle in which one set of problems is replaced by another as new species enter the country taking over from those brought under control (Richardson et al ., 1990; Rejmánek and Richardson, 1996; Van Wilgen et al ., 2000). Researchers are also looking into the possibility of producing seedless clones of commercially grown pines (Richardson, 1998).

stabilize sand dunes.

Purpose of introduction (1)

There was lobbying and counter-lobbying on a proposal to declare one of the commercial species ( Acacia mearnsii ) a weed (Stubbing, 1977; Pieterse and Boucher, 1997). The potential rift between commercial users of invasive tree species and environmentalists has been avoided by the declaration of most of the economic species as invaders rather than weeds. If declared weeds, the law would require that they be eliminated automatically. One area of conflict has been the start of a biological control programme for Acacia mearnsii (Pieterse and Boucher, 1997). The release of the seed-feeding weevil ( Melanterius maculatus ) for the biocontrol of Acacia mearnsii was done in most of the provinces of South Africa, with the exception of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces, where there is a conflict of interest with wattle growers (PPRI, 2002). The wattle growers in KwaZulu Natal, with most of the South African commercial wattle plantations, rely on seed in the soils for about half of the regeneration, and have negotiated with PPRI to release initially in non-commercial areas to allow growers to build up seed banks sufficient to supply the entire industry for line-sowing purposes (Dave Dobson, SAWGU, pers. comm.).

Sources: Hall and Boucher, 1977; Duggan and Henderson, 1981; Richardson et al ., 1994; Dept. of Agriculture, Regulation No. 15, 2001.

Savannah Grassland Forest.

Fynbos Grassland Savannah Forest.

1. Decreases stream flow.

Destabilizes river banks and excludes native plants.

3.1.4 Control of invasive trees.

Forest Savannah Grassland.

Planted area (ha)

timber, amen., orn., nuts.

Invasive alien tree species have been shown to cause both environmental and economic impacts in South Africa. They have been shown to have a negative effect on all components of biological diversity, from genes to whole ecosystems. In South Africa, invasive alien tree species and shrubs have been shown to have the following negative effects:

Richardson et al . (1994) gave a rough ranking of different vegetation types in terms of their vulnerability to invasion by pines as:

South Africa has made significant strides in describing and quantifying the economic and environmental impact of alien invader tree species in its various ecological regions (Le Maitre et al ., 1996; Chapman and Versfeld, 1995; Prinsloo and Scott, 1999; Holmes and Marais, 2000; Le Maitre et al ., 2000; van Wilgen et al ., 2001). Table 2 shows some of the documented environmental impacts caused by different invasive alien tree species.

Judging by the number of publications on invasive alien tree species in South Africa, awareness of the negative impacts of invasive alien tree species must be very high. The government has put in place regulations governing the marketing of seed and planting of species declared as invaders (Government Gazette, 2001). The government has also produced campaign materials in the form of easily readable brochures, flyers, pamphlets, etc., on the negative impacts of invasive alien tree species. One such brochure is entitled The Environmental Impacts of Invading Alien Plants in South Africa and is an easily readable brochure aimed at the lay person. The government also set up the ‘Working for Water’ programme that aims to eradicate and control invasive alien tree species in South Africa to minimize water lost to these undesirable plants.

3.1.5 Awareness and potential conflicts of interest.

Forest < shrubland < grassland < < dunes < bare ground.

There are four main immediate methods used in South Africa to control invasive alien tree species:

1. Out-competes native plants 2. Changes feeding dynamics of frugivorous birds.

The problem posed by these invasive alien tree species in Zimbabwe was realized by the Nyanga National Park as far back as the 1980s. The National Park estates are either adjacent to commercial forestry plantations (the major source of infestation) or had their own plantings in the early 1920s. The exotic species were planted as a deliberate policy to provide fuelwood and construction timber and to beautify the parks with ornamentals such as jacarandas and syringas. The syringa ( Melia azedarach ) was observed to be regenerating on its own in the 1950s (SRFC, 1956). Also, more invasions have been observed inside forest estates in pockets usually left for conservation purposes, along watercourses and outside timber estates. Despite the early awareness, there has been no institutionalized research on invasive tree species, although there has bee some research by individuals.

1. Increases the biomass 2. Changes size and distribution of fuel 3. Decreases moisture content resulting in change of fire regime 4. Increased biomass results in very intense fires when felled plants are burnt 5. Dense stands limit options for fire management 6. Changes vegetation structure resulting in decrease in abundance and diversity of native birds 7. Changes arthropod community structure with some taxa increasing while others decrease 8. Decreases leaf retention and seed percentage set in native Proteaceae.

1. Increases litter fall 2. Decreases diversity of ground living invertebrates 3. Decreases stream flow.

The cost of controlling alien plant invasions in South Africa has been estimated to be around US$ 1 200 million, or US$ 60 million per year for the estimated period of 20 years that it will take to deal with the problem (Chapman and Versfeld, 1998), although some authorities challenge the shortness of the 20-year timeframe and the consequent financial calculations, and others contest the values used in costing the operation (Dave Dobson, SAWGU, pers. comm.). The potential reduction in value of the fynbos biome (1 million ha) due to invasion (based on six components: water production, wild flower harvesting, hiker visits, ecotourism, endemic species and genetic storage) was estimated at US$ 11 750 million annually (Higgins et al ., 1997). The net present cost of invasions by black wattle ( Acacia mearnsii ) in South Africa has been estimated to amount to US$ 1 400 million, although some assumptions of the model used [1] are debated. The plantation forestry industry, which is often thought to be the major source of infestation for invasions, contributes US$ 300 million, or 2 percent of the Gross Domestic product (GDP), and employs 100 000 people. The downstream forest-based industries contribute a further US$ 1 600 million, much of it in export earnings. However, in trying to attribute blame, it must be remembered that the forest industry was often supported by government in its introduction activities, and also that probably half of the problem species arrived as ornamentals. Thirty-eight percent of the area invaded by woody alien species in South Africa is occupied by species used in commercial forestry, although not necessarily planted for commercial logging, as the commercial species were also used by official agencies and land users as a source of seedlings for fuelwood, shelter belts, windbreaks, woodlots, etc. The Government of South Africa committed US$ 100 million between 1995 and 2000 to the ‘Working for Water’ Programme for the control of these invasive alien species. The control or eradication programme, which is mostly manual and chemical, has created significant employment opportunities for poor communities. In 1998, about 40 000 people were employed by the ‘Working for Water’ Programme to clear invasive alien tree species. In South Africa, biological control is envisaged as a long-term option for controlling further invasions and re-invasions. The total cost of biological control research initiatives between 1997 and 2000 was US$ 3 million. Using biological control to clear invasive alien tree species and shrubs could cost US$ 400 million over 20 years, or US$ 20 million per year, a cost considered manageable for a developing country like South Africa. However, biocontrol is currently only applicable to a very limited range of tree species, and extreme care has to be taken to ensure that there are no unwanted side-effects associated with the introduction of alien biocontrol agents. This presupposes considerable technical capacity, which is in limited supply. The provisions of CBD must also be adhered to in this context.

(1) Purpose of introduction: amen. = amenity use; orn. = ornamental use; shelt. = shelterbelt use; charc. = charcoal production; fwood = fuelwood production. (2) Category – these are the three categories used in Republic of South Africa legislation. See Appendix for regulations for each category. (3) Index of invasiveness: 5 = highly invasive; 1 = not invasive.

Jake Cormier of Clear Bright Dawn who represents PureForm, expounds on the uniqueness of using non-cannabis CBD in edible products such as GrönCBD.

“Because PureForm CBD is not derived from Cannabis or its closely related sibling Hemp, it is not subject to the Federal Controlled Substances Act. Therefore it has advantages legally and can cross State lines and mainstream banking and accounting principals can be utilized. In Oregon, PureForm is not regulated within the dispensary market (as hemp based CBD now is) and is not subject to the accounting (METRC) requirements or the sales tax.

For those looking to try CBD who live in a state where cannabis is not legalized, check out GrönCBD bars. Derived from the bark of an invasive pine tree and fair trade source chocolate, these hand-crafted chocolate bars offer a delectable natural taste with a gentle high that’s legal in all 50 states.

My personal favorite is their Magical Milk Chocolate Bar made from 38% cacao milk chocolate and infused with CBD derived from natural tree bark. Then these bars are sprinkled with locally sourced hand-harvested Jacobsen sea salt. The end result is a buttery caramel taste that’s smooth and silky with just a tiny crunch from the salt.

Unlike some “legal” CBD products made using chemicals or very poor quality hemp powder, this CBD is produced by a company called PureForm using non-cannabis natural botanicals.

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Those looking for a dark chocolate vegan option should try their Deepest Darkest Chocolate Bar made with 72% cacao dark chocolate. Like the milk chocolate bar, this bar is also topped with Jacobsen sea salt and infused with the same CBD.

Photo provided by GronCBD.

"PureForm is produced at a cGMP FDA licensed Food Grade facility. It is therefore pure and pristine – the common concerns plaguing hemp derived products (pesticides, fertilizers, toxins and heavy metals) do not impact the quality of PureForm. PureForm can be made at scale and is not subject to seasonal impacts or the 6 month wait for hemp to grow and be harvested. Because PureForm is derived from by-products and invasive plants, it has a tiny carbon footprint compared to hemp which uses large amounts of space, energy, water, fertilizer and pesticide to produce. 

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