medical marijuana cbdDecember 15, 2021
At the time this article was written, 23 states have legalized medical marijuana with varying restrictions. However, it is classified as a Schedule I substance by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), and thus is illegal at the Federal level. In most states with legal medicinal marijuana, a prescription, authorization, or medical recommendation is required, and a card or license is issued. This allows a person to buy medical marijuana.
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Medical marijuana is the medical use of the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant to relieve symptoms of, or treat diseases and conditions. The Cannabis plant was used medically for centuries around the world until the early 1900s. Medical marijuana facts can be difficult to find because strong opinions exist, both pros and cons. Medical uses and emerging research on off-label uses are summarized in this article.
Are there any side effects of medical marijuana?
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At higher doses, side effects include.
There are numerous studies underway on medical marijuana, but research is challenged by limited access given the FDA classification. A search of the National Institutes of Health funded projects list in 2016 revealed 165 studies related to cannabis and 327 studies related to the search term marijuana. The majority of these studies are surveys into use patterns. Many are also basic science studies investigating how the endocannabinoid system in the brain and immune system works. Survey studies that anonymously assess users habits and reported benefits may provide insight into the effects of real-world use patterns. There are over 60 peer-reviewed research studies that have been published about medicinal cannabis. Sixty-eight percent of these studies found benefit while 8% found no benefit. Twenty-three percent of the studies were inconclusive or neutral. The most promising areas of research appear to be in the use of CBD for neuroprotection.
Medical marijuana side effects are minimal when used at low doses and include.
CBD or cannabidiol is another compound in marijuana that is not psychoactive. CBD is thought to be responsible for the majority of the medical benefits.
There are over 60 peer-reviewed research studies examining the benefits of medical marijuana. Sixty-eight percent of these studies found benefit while 8% found no benefit. Twenty-three percent of the studies were inconclusive or neutral. Most research has been conducted on the compound CBD. The benefits of medical marijuana can be attributed to binding to the endocannabinoid system. This has many effects including.
THC:CBD: Nabiximols (Sativex) is a specific plant extract with an equal ratio of THC:CBD. It is approved as a drug in the UK and elsewhere in Europe for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, spasticity, neuropathic pain, overactive bladder and other indications.
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What research is being done for medical marijuana?
Most research suggests a very low risk of addiction and very low toxicity of medical marijuana when taken as recommended in low therapeutic doses. There is concern about psychological dependence in heavy users and whether this constitutes marijuana abuse. Some research has suggested CBD oil might be useful in treatment for marijuana addiction or marijuana abuse.
In states where medical marijuana is legal, shops, often called dispensaries, sell marijuana products in a variety of forms. Medical marijuana is available in edible forms (candies or cookies), oils and extracts, and as the plant which can be smoked or otherwise inhaled. Dispensaries require a medical marijuana card before they will sell products. How people can get a medical marijuana card varies by state. It requires a prescription from a licensed health-care professional.
There are concerns about adverse effects of cannabis among adolescents because the risks are greater to the immature brain and neurological system. Concerns include increased risk of schizophrenia and loss of IQ.
Epidiolex is a CBD oil extract that is undergoing clinical trials for epilepsy.
More research has been conducted on the compound CBD. Medical CBD is anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and anti-emetic. The CBD compound in medical marijuana appears to be neuroprotective in Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s disease, fetal hypoxia, and other neurodegenerative conditions and movement disorders.
Medical uses of marijuana include both studied and approved uses and off-label uses. In a recent research survey, the most common reasons people use medical marijuana are for.
Is medical marijuana “addictive?”
There are public health concerns about the safety of driving under the influence of medical marijuana. A JAMA study found lower rates of opioid overdose deaths in states with legal medical marijuana.
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Medical marijuana products are available with a huge range of THC and CBD concentrations. Expert opinion states that 10mg of THC should be considered “one serving” and a person new to medical marijuana should inhale or consume no more until they know their individual response.
THC or tetrahydrocannabinolis the psychoactive compound in marijuana. It is responsible for the “high” people feel. There are two man-made drugs called dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet) that are synthetic forms of THC. They are FDA-approved to prevent nausea and vomiting in people receiving chemotherapy.
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Outside of the US, the prescription drug Sativex, which uses CBD as an active ingredient, is approved for muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and for cancer pain. Within the US, Epidiolex is approved for certain types of epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis.
Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level of blood thinning and other medicines in your blood by competing for the liver enzymes that break down these drugs. Grapefruit has a similar effect with certain medicines.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is often covered in the media, and you may see it touted as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. You can even buy a CBD-infused sports bra. But what exactly is CBD? And why is it so popular?
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, stop them altogether. Epidiolex, which contains CBD, is the first cannabis-derived medicine approved by the FDA for these conditions.
CBD is readily obtainable in most parts of the United States, though its exact legal status has been in flux. All 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with varying degrees of restriction. In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory requirements to allow researchers to conduct CBD trials. In 2018, the Farm Bill made hemp legal in the United States, making it virtually impossible to keep CBD illegal – that would be like making oranges legal, but keeping orange juice illegal.
How can CBD be taken?
Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer or COVID-19, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may prove to be a helpful, relatively non-toxic option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies, we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD currently is typically available as an unregulated supplement, it’s hard to know exactly what you are getting.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is the second most prevalent active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, a cousin of marijuana, or manufactured in a laboratory. One of hundreds of components in marijuana, CBD does not cause a “high” by itself. According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”
A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So, you cannot be sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other unknown elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
CBD comes in many forms, including oils, extracts, capsules, patches, vapes, and topical preparations for use on skin. If you’re hoping to reduce inflammation and relieve muscle and joint pain, a topical CBD-infused oil, lotion or cream – or even a bath bomb — may be the best option. Alternatively, a CBC patch or a tincture or spray designed to be placed under the tongue allows CBD to directly enter the bloodstream.
Animal studies, and self-reports or research in humans, suggest CBD may also help with:
People taking high doses of CBD may show abnormalities in liver related blood tests. Many non-prescription drugs, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), have this same effect. So, you should let your doctor know if you are regularly using CBD.
The Farm Bill removed all hemp-derived products, including CBD, from the Controlled Substances Act, which criminalizes the possession of drugs. In essence, this means that CBD is legal if it comes from hemp, but not if it comes from cannabis (marijuana) – even though it is the exact same molecule. Currently, many people obtain CBD online without a medical marijuana license, which is legal in most states.
If you decide to try CBD, make sure you are getting it from a reputable source. And talk with your doctor to make sure that it won’t affect any other medicines you take.